MongoDB is a type of document oriented database server developed in the C++ programming language. The word Mongo is derived from Humongous. MongoDB is an open source database server product which is used for document oriented storage. MongoDB has improved performance because it makes data storage faster and easier by using dynamic database schemas similar to JSON instead of traditional relational database systems of tables and SQL, it is for this reason; MongoDB is categorized as the NoSQL database server. The dynamic database schema used in MongoDB is called the BSON.
History
MongoDB was developed in 2007 by a New York based organization 10gen which is now called MongoDB Inc. MongoDB was developed as a PAAS (Platform as a service) initially. Later on in the year 2009, MongoDB was introduced in the market as an open source database server that was maintained and supported by the MongoDB Inc. Many large and medium scale organizations such as SourceForge, Foursquare, craigslist and eBay are now using MongoDB in development of their database applications.
Advantages
There are several advantages of using MongoDB over contemporary database servers.
  • Simplicity
MongoDB being a non-sql database management system is much simpler and complexities that come with relational databases are removed in MongoDB. JSON like, document oriented storage simplifies database systems.
  • Data Replication and Reliability
MongoDB allow users to replicate data on multiple mirrored servers which ensures data reliability. In case a server crashes, its mirror is still available and database processing remains unaltered.
  • NoSQL Queries
MongoDB has non-sql query mechanism which results in lightning fast data storage and retrieval functionalities. JSON Based document oriented queries are extremely fast as compared to traditional sql queries.
  • Schema Free Migrations
In MongoDB, schema is defined by the code. Hence, in case of database migrations, no schema compatibility issue arises.
  • Efficient Horizontal Scalability
Since MongoDB is a non-relational database hence it is best suited to the scenarios where horizontal scalability is important.
  • Open Source
Last but not the least, MongoDB is a database server that is open source and customizable according to the requirements of the organization.

MongoDB is highly recommended in scenarios where fast processing and simplicity is the key. Due to its NoSQL based query mechanism it is robust, scalable and highly efficient.