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Complete List of IP Ranges Masks

If you have ever dabbled with network devices or managed a network, you have surely heard about the TCP/IP; directly or indirectly. Well, TCP/IP is a suite of protocols used for communicating and connecting devices. Any device or hardware, say a router, switch, or a computer, connected to a TCP/IP-based network is assigned a unique IP address.

IP Ranges Masks

IP address

The IP address uniquely identifies the device in a network while communicating. This IP address can be configured manually (in case of a static IP) or automatically by a DHCP server. A DHCP Server is a network server that automatically provides and assigns IP addresses, default gateways, and other network parameters to client devices. It relies on the standard protocol known as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol or DHCP to respond to broadcast queries by clients.

The IP address consists of 4 bytes of data. A single byte consists of 8 bits, hence there is a total of 32 bits in the IP address. As you can express up to 256 different numbers using a byte, each of these 4 chunks can vary from 0 to 255. While writing the IP address, each of these bytes is represented as a numeric value, and usually, a dot separates each byte.

Consider the IP address 192.168.0.132 which is written in the usual dot-decimal notation. Each of the bytes is separated by a dot. The same IP address can be written in binary notation. For example, 11000000.10101000.00000000.10000100 is the equivalent of the earlier, but it is simply more cumbersome.

Subnet Mask

Subnetting is a slightly advanced topic and needs some familiarity with how IP addresses are used to identify a device (often called a node in a network). In short, it is the process of breaking a bigger network into smaller ones. Technically, it is the process of logical subdivision of a network (logical because you are not ‘physically’ dividing the network). There are several important reasons for doing so – decreased broadcast traffic and easier troubleshooting are two of them.

A subnet mask is, in general, a 4-byte number (just like IP address) that is paired with the IP. An IP address and subnet mask pair uniquely identify the network address and host address. The subnet mask tells whether the host is on the local subnet or a remote network. The subnet mask divides the IP address into 2 parts – the network address and the host address.

The biggest issue of the current approach is that you cannot determine what part of the IP is the network address and what part of it is the host address. Given the IP address and the corresponding subnet mask, one can easily determine the network address of a host.

How does the subnet mask work?

Well, it should be clear by now that you need some additional information in the form of a subnet mask. For example, say we have an IP address 192.168.0.132 and a subnet mask 255.255.255.0. Writing them in the binary form we get the following:

11000000 . 10101000 . 00000000 . 10000100 <– IP address

11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 00000000 <– Subnet mask

——————————————————————————————–

11000000 . 10101000 . 00000000 . 00000000 <– Network address

Performing bitwise AND operation on these 2, 4-byte numbers we get the network address. Similarly, if we consider the negation of the subnet mask (i.e. the result we get after performing the bitwise NOT operation on the subnet mask) what we end up with is the host address.

11000000 . 10101000 . 00000000 . 10000100 <– IP address

00000000 . 00000000 . 00000000 . 11111111 <– The negation of the Subnet mask

——————————————————————————————————————

00000000 . 00000000 . 00000000 . 10000100 <– Host address

So we end up with the deciphered network address 192.168.0.0 and the host address 0.0.0.132. So, essentially when a packet has 192.168.0.132 as the destination address it goes to the subnetwork designated the network address 192.168.0.0 and then searches for the host address 0.0.0.132.

Network classes

All the IP addresses are allocated by the Network Information Center (NIC or InterNIC), an organization founded in 1972 that is in charge of administering the internet. From its birth in 1972 until October 1, 1991, it was run by the Stanford Research Institute, now known as SRI International, and led by Jake Feinler. The IP addresses can be broadly categorized into many classes depending on their value.

The addresses are divided into 5 classes – A, B, C, D, and E. Among these classes, A, B, and C are the most popular and widely used. Class D and E are not officially released for public use yet. Each of these classes has different default subnet masks.

You can identify the class of your IP address by checking out the value of the first octet. In other words, the value before the first dot dictates as to what would be the class of the IP. Following are the rules for determining the class:

  1. Class A: The first octet has a value between 0 and 127 (both inclusive). The corresponding subnet mask for the IP addresses from this class is 255.0.0.0. Consider the IP address 77.111.247.180, for example. The first byte has a value of 10, which lies in the range 0-127.
  2. Class B: The first octet has a value between 128 and 191 (both inclusive). The corresponding subnet mask for the IP addresses from this class is 255.255.0.0. Consider the IP address 172.8.52.32, for example. The first byte has a value of 172, which lies in the range 128-191.
  3. Class C: The first octet has a value between 192 and 223 (both inclusive). The corresponding subnet mask for the IP addresses from this class is 255.255.255.0. Consider the IP address 192.168.0.132, for example. The first byte has a value of 192, which lies in the range 192-223.

In many cases, organizations decide to divide the IP addresses. The default subnet mask is unable to deal with such needs. In many situations, it becomes necessary: say the very physical topology is not of much utility for the organization, or the number of hosts or networks may not fit within the bracket that the subnet mask provides.

In any case, a network administrator might decide to further logically divide (or technically, ‘subnet’) the network.

 

In the following section, we have compiled several tables with important IP address ranges.

Addresses Hosts Netmask Amount of a Class C
/30 4 2 255.255.255.252 1/64
/29 8 6 255.255.255.248 1/32
/28 16 14 255.255.255.240 1/16
/27 32 30 255.255.255.224 1/8
/26 64 62 255.255.255.192 1/4
/25 128 126 255.255.255.128 1/2
/24 256 254 255.255.255.0 1
/23 512 510 255.255.254.0 2
/22 1024 1022 255.255.252.0 4
/21 2048 2046 255.255.248.0 8
/20 4096 4094 255.255.240.0 16
/19 8192 8190 255.255.224.0 32
/18 16384 16382 255.255.192.0 64
/17 32768 32766 255.255.128.0 128
/16 65536 65534 255.255.0.0 256

 

/30 — 64 Subnets — 2 Hosts/Subnet

Network number IP Range Broadcast
.0 .1 – .2 .3
.4 .5 – .6 .7
.8 .9 – .10 .11
.12 .13 – .14 .15
.16 .17 – .18 .19
.20 .21 – .22 .23
.24 .25 – .26 .27
.28 .29 – .30 .31
.32 .33 – .34 .35
.36 .37 – .38 .39
.40 .41 – .42 .43
.44 .45 – .46 .47
.48 .49 – .50 .51
.52 .53 – .54 .55
.56 .57 – .58 .59
.60 .61 – .62 .63
.64 .65 – .66 .67
.68 .69 – .70 .71
.72 .73 – .74 .75
.76 .77 – .78 .79
.80 .81 – .82 .83
.84 .85 – .86 .87
.88 .89 – .90 .91
.92 .93 – .94 .95
.96 .97 – .98 .99
.100 .101 – .102 .103
.104 .105 – .106 .107
.108 .109 – .110 .111
.112 .113 – .114 .115
.116 .117 – .118 .119
.120 .121 – .122 .123
.124 .125 – .126 .127
.128 .129 – .130 .131
.132 .133 – .134 .135
.136 .137 – .138 .139
.140 .141 – .142 .143
.144 .145 – .146 .147
.148 .149 – .150 .151
.152 .153 – .154 .155
.156 .157 – .158 .159
.160 .161 – .162 .163
.164 .165 – .166 .167
.168 .169 – .170 .171
.172 .173 – .174 .175
.176 .177 – .178 .179
.180 .181 – .182 .183
.184 .185 – .186 .187
.188 .189 – .190 .191
.192 .193 – .194 .195
.196 .197 – .198 .199
.200 .201 – .202 .203
.204 .205 – .206 .207
.208 .209 – .210 .211
.212 .213 – .214 .215
.216 .217 – .218 .219
.220 .221 – .222 .223
.224 .225 – .226 .227
.228 .229 – .230 .231
.232 .233 – .234 .235
.236 .237 – .238 .239
.240 .241 – .242 .243
.244 .245 – .246 .247
.248 .249 – .250 .251
.252 .253 – .254 .255

 

/25 — 2 Subnets — 126 Hosts/Subnet

Network number IP Range Broadcast
.0 .1 – .126 .127
.128 .129 – .254 .255

 

/26 — 4 Subnets — 62 Hosts/Subnet

Network number IP Range Broadcast
.0 .1 – .62 .63
.64 .65 – .126 .127
.128 .129 – .190 .191
.192 .193 – .254 .255

 

/29 — 32 Subnets — 6 Hosts/Subnet

Network number IP Range Broadcast
.0 .1 – .6 .7
.8 .9 – .14 .15
.16 .17 – .22 .23
.24 .25 – .30 .31
.32 .33 – .38 .39
.40 .41 – .46 .47
.48 .49 – .54 .55
.56 .57 – .62 .63
.64 .65 – .70 .71
.72 .73 – .78 .79
.80 .81 – .86 .87
.88 .89 – .94 .95
.96 .97 – .102 .103
.104 .105 – .110 .111
.112 .113 – .118 .119
.120 .121 – .126 .127
.128 .129 – .134 .135
.136 .137 – .142 .143
.144 .145 – .150 .151
.152 .153 – .158 .159
.160 .161 – .166 .167
.168 .169 – .174 .175
.176 .177 – .182 .183
.184 .185 – .190 .191
.192 .193 – .198 .199
.200 .201 – .206 .207
.208 .209 – .214 .215
.216 .217 – .222 .223
.224 .225 – .230 .231
.232 .233 – .238 .239
.240 .241 – .246 .247
.248 .249 – .254 .255

 

   

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