The Future of Computing A Beginner's Guide to Quantum Computing - ByteScout
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# The Future of Computing A Beginner’s Guide to Quantum Computing

Quantum computing is the future of computing that utilizes quantum mechanical phenomena. This technique is reportedly more powerful and efficient as it uses superposition and entanglement for data operations. Quantum computing operates with quantum bits or qubits, simultaneously providing multiple states and faster computations. Combining multiple qubits allows the formation of a quantum state representing every possible combination of the qubits. One of the significant advantages of quantum computing is its efficiency in solving complex problems regarding cryptography and optimization.

## Quantum Computing Working

There are various complexities where Quantum computing can work more efficiently than classical computing. Quantum computing proves helpful when there is a requirement to manipulate large numbers. These scenarios often occur in fields of Artificial Intelligence, complex system optimization, and chemical simulations. As mentioned, quantum computing works with qubits for data operations, a two-state quantum mechanical system. Similarly, superposition is the ability of qubits to have multiple states, which allows fast computing.

Moreover, another important concept of quantum computing is entanglement. Entanglement refers to the phenomenon where two qubits correlate their states after being entangled. The correlation of states persists even after the distance separation of qubits, which results in high performance compared to classical computers.

## Quantum Computing Applications and Industries

Quantum computers provide real-time benefits for specific tasks. Although this technology can make revolutionary changes in various fields, it works efficiently for some ideal scenarios currently that involve specific computational challenges. A simple example is a scenario where the inputs and outputs are comparatively minor and have infinite possibilities. Another example is Shor’s algorithm which works by factoring large numbers reasonably quickly. This example refers to the working of the cryptography industry as there is a requirement of factoring large numbers. Similarly, quantum computing works efficiently for various purposes, such as:

• Encryption
• Energy Source and Prediction
• Weather Forecasting
• Financial Market Prediction
• Modeling the Brain
• Optimising Remote Space Operations
• Quantum Chemistry
• Logistics

### Logistics

Quantum computing is highly beneficial for the Logistics industry as it is both time and cost-efficient. For example, if a company wants to move its products from one city to another in the shortest possible time, it would require finding the quickest possible path by going through every direction and then calculating which one to choose. Developers can solve this problem by quantum computing within a few seconds. According to IBM, if there are trillion items on a list and the user wants to find one thing, it would take a quantum computer only one second to find it, while conventional computers could take up to a week.

### Healthcare

Quantum computing has great potential to optimize the healthcare industry. It can help discover the drugs and personalize medications. Quantum computers help analyze massive data sets and identify any candidate that could be the potential drug in a short amount of time. The exact computations can take up to years while working with a classical computer. Moreover, high-speed and efficient computing can optimize clinical trials, which would help patients through its groundbreaking outcomes.

### Financial Industry

Quantum computing technology can improve data modeling and forecasting for complex financial systems. The faster simulations provide highly accurate results, which further help asset pricing and risk analysis. The developers can use quantum computing to manage effective risk and make important investment decisions.

In addition to all the other benefits of quantum computing in various industries, another critical aspect highlights the role of quantum computing in improving Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning technologies. Developers can build highly optimized machine learning algorithms through quantum computing.

## Cybersecurity and Quantum Computing

Quantum computers can easily break the encryption in various communication systems. Therefore, quantum computers hold a threat to all the current encryption methods as soon as they become powerful enough to break all of them. The experts describe this phenomenon as the quantum apocalypse or, in other words, the cryptocalypse. The developers are now working on more powerful encryption methods to avoid attacks from quantum computers, including post-quantum cryptography. The post-quantum cryptography deals with complex mathematical problems which are hard to crack for quantum computers. Other algorithms include hash-based cryptography, code-based cryptography, lattice-based cryptography, and multivariate cryptography.

## Quantum Algorithms

Quantum algorithms are a crucial part of quantum computing and use superposition and entanglement, critical properties of quantum mechanics. These algorithms solve complex problems exponentially fast. As discussed above, a key algorithm is Shor’s algorithm which exponentially factors enormous numbers. This algorithm works on the top of quantum phase estimation and quantum Fourier transform to work on the factors of composite numbers.

Additionally, there is Grover’s algorithm. This algorithm searches unsorted databases much faster than conventional computers. The algorithm uses quantum parallelism to search through every possible solution effectively simultaneously. This approach exponentially reduces the time taken to find the optimal solution. Grover’s algorithm is efficient for optimization problems and data retrieval applications.

## Quantum Computing in the Future

The concept of quantum computing is not new, yet it is still in its early stages, and there is excellent potential for development over the next few years. All the big business companies and tech giants are constantly working on developing quantum computers. IBM and Google have already developed such computers that provide high-performance computations. Google claimed that in 2019 it achieved quantum supremacy as its quantum computer successfully solved a complex problem in 200 seconds. Google claimed supremacy as the most powerful supercomputer in the world might have taken 10000 years to solve that problem. Along with improving existing technology, there is a need to overcome the decoherence issue of qubits, which results in errors in quantum computations.

The current ability to solve complex problems through computations, even with supercomputers, takes around weeks or months and, in some situations, even years. Quantum computing can change this situation and allow developers to solve such problems within a minimal time. Therefore, developers are trying to implement quantum computing technology in various areas such as finance, manufacturing, security, and logistics. Hence, quantum computing is expected to be a significant part of research and development in the coming years. Numerous risks are also associated with improving such a powerful technology. Moreover, there is a high chance of further improvements in cryptography and machine learning technologies with the right resources and investments in quantum computing.